How Goat Milk Helps In Internal Inflammation
Milk and dairy products are considered an important part of a well-balanced diet. According to the Malaysian Food Pyramid 2020, it is recommended to take milk and its produce one or two servings per day as a source of protein other than poultry. People generally rely on cow milk compared to goat milk for most of our dairy needs. However, cow milk commonly causes allergies, which affects up to 1.5 million children each year. Goat milk can be consumed as a substitute for cow’s milk because it is less allergenic and has better digestibility.
Goat milk contains higher levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus compared to cow milk and human milk. Previous studies had shown that goat milk possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, making it useful for treating mild digestive issues and preventing allergy conditions in children. In addition, goat milk fights internal inflammation. For instance, it reduces the risk of skin breakouts. Other studies had proven that goat milk helps in internal inflammation via bioactive peptides from proteins.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the multi-functional enzymes that regulate blood pressure. ACE inhibition is considered one of the best strategies for hypertension treatment. Proteins present in goat milk consist of 80% caseins and 20% whey proteins. It was suggested by Ibrahim and his colleagues (2017), where goat milk and goat whey bioactive peptides have an anti-hypertensive effect through inhibition of ACE, however considering that all the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension include the existence of multifunctional peptides.
Other than that, goat milk helps in internal inflammation as it contains antimicrobial peptides. A review by Budiarti and his team (2013) indicated the presence of Alpha-S2 casein in goat milk contains eight bioactive peptides possessing anti-osteoporotic or anti-inflammatory properties, which was not being found in cow milk. Lactoferrin is one of the antimicrobial peptides found in goat milk that plays an important role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Lactoferrin helps to boost the activity of white blood cells such as NK cells, neutrophils and macrophages. Moreover, lactoferrin in goat milk also helps to protect against cancer by killing cancer cells.
The antioxidant peptides in goat milk potentially prevent and delay oxidative stress associated with chronic diseases. In other words, goat milk proteins act as potential carriers for the delivery of antioxidant peptides in the gastrointestinal tract. They may exert direct protective effects by scavenging reactive oxygen species and reducing the oxidative stress that is harmful to the body.
When pathogens invade the human body, B cells will generate antibodies to target specific antigens. Casein phosphopeptides in goat milk have been suggested to increase the level of IgA in stool; an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the mucous membrane. Moreover, goat milk can trigger IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. These proteins are essential in the human immune system.
In conclusion, goat milk helps in internal inflammation by the presence of several types of bioactive peptides including anti-microbial peptides, antioxidant peptides and bioactive peptides with anti-hypertensive effects. Proteins in goat milk help increase antibody production in the immune system.
Lima, M. J. R., Lemos, E. T., Oliveira, J., Lemos, L. P. T., Monteiro, A. M. C., & Costa, J. M. (2018). Nutritional and Health Profile of Goat Products: Focus on Health Benefits of Goat Milk http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.70321 1
Kao, H. F., Wang, Y. C., Tseng, H. Y., Wu, L. S., Tsai, H. J., Hsieh, M. H., Chen, P. C., Kuo, W. S., Liu, L. F., Liu, Z. G., & Wang, J. Y. (2020). Goat Milk Consumption Enhances Innate and Adaptive Immunities and Alleviates Allergen-Induced Airway Inflammation in Offspring Mice. Frontiers in immunology, 11, 184. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00184
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